Successful commercial websites strive to strike a balance between the content and profit-seeking services they provide. The better the content, the better the Search Engine Optimisation (SEO), which is key to a successful online business – increasing traffic, sales and brand loyalty. Although there are many competitors in the area of travel websites, this study will analyse three frontrunners: National Geographic Australia(NGA), Lonely Planet (LP) and the US’s Frommer’s. This critique will analyse the three websites in terms of audience/intent, content, narrative style, interactivity, keywords and linking. Ultimately, the comparison will illustrate how the sites are excelling, but also the areas in which I feel they could improve.
Audience and Intent
NGA’s myriad media products (magazine, TV, books, radio, maps, etc) reach 325 million people a month. Its award-winning website, with versions specific to the US, UK, Japan, India, Serbia and Australia, receives more than 12 million monthly visitors. Its target audience comprises adults interested in travel, photography, animals, the green movement and the environment. Not wanting to exclude their younger audience, there is also a special National Geographic Kids section of the site filled with games, educational activities and photos. The company has a mission “to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge [and] to inspire people to care about the planet”.
LP’s webby award-winning site, visited monthly by 5 million people, has versions in Italian, German, Spanish, French, Japanese and Chinese. Lonely Planet says that people visit the website “to get hardcore about travel. To dream about it, plan it, book it and talk about it. They come to shop, to read features, to enter competitions, to watch videos. They come to find a job, share advice, read reviews.” The majority of Lonely Planet’s audience are adults in their 30s or 40s who enjoy travelling and interacting with others who share the same interests.
Although only in English, Frommer’s site recieves 500,000 US visits per month. It also appears to have a large overseas audience, as evident by its popular international community section. Frommer’s website has the mission “to empower today’s traveller through trusted travel editorial and welcome them to Frommer’s community of travellers”.
Jonathan Dube, in his article “Writing News Online” says that “online journalists must constantly think in terms of different elements and how they complement and supplement each other [and should] always keep an eye out for information that can be conveyed more effectively using interactive tools.”
NGA’s homepage boasts of varying types of content. Textual content comes in the form of news articles and feature articles. Every news article is accompanied by a colourful photograph and easy-to-access links to articles providing further reading on that particular topic. Feature articles – clearly taken directly from the magazine – have no links or videos. The site provides lots of interesting videos on a separate video page organised by categories like environment, animals, travel and culture, kids, etc. Another form of content is the child-friendly games section. Then, there are beautiful map and photography sections.
LP’s content also comes in different forms. The majority can be found through the site’s “destinations” tab. Which allows users to search for a particular destination, either by clicking on the world map or typing in the name. Doing so will lead the user to text adapted from the LP guide booksand organised into categories like practical information, history and work & study. Other content takes the form of articles and blog posts written by LP staff and authors. All of these articles are accompanied by a minimum of three photographs, links to further reading within the site and occasionally video. The majority of video content can be found at their sister site Lonely Planet tv.
Frommer’s content is very disappointing. Although there is a great deal of well-organised and easy-to-locate content, it isn’t accompanied by other content forms like photos or videos. The text also has a surprising lack of links (although there are a few internal ones). The text has the appearance of a static page out of a physical book – definitely unsuitable for a website.
Narrative Style and Readability
Research has shown that the narrative style of web writing must differ from that of print. Dorothy A Bowles and Diane L Borden, in their book Creative Editing, state that research shows “Web users do not like long, scrolling pages; they prefer the text to be short and to the point [since] reading from computer screens is about 25 percent slower than reading from paper”. Nancy DuVergne Smith says, “Many sites are built from documents created for print publications [so] the transition to the web is an opportunity to cut the fat…Dense prose murders a web site.” These three travel sites are faced with this challenge of adapting their print content to the web – but not all of them do it successfully.
NGA’s news articles are well-suited to the web. They use scannable sentences within short paragraphs. However, the longer feature articles, which do not seem to have been altered for the web, are inappropriate since they use a narrative style better suited for print: long sentences built with poetic language meant to be consumed at a leisurely pace. On the other hand, it does a great job with the features‘ titles and kickers, which are descriptive and concise.
LP does a better job of adapting its print content to the web. It keeps sentences snappy, the tone conversational and paragraphs short. The article’s titlesalso typify the informal toneand use their introductory paragraphs as the kickers.
Frommer’s articles do a pretty good job of adapting their articles and keeping the language and style web-appropriate. However, their choices of article titles are underwhelming. Also, no kickers are included in the text.
“The World is Flat: The Ten Forces that Flattened the World” by Thomas L Friedman argues that consumers are becoming producers. He says that this process “is fundamentally reshaping the flow of creativity, innovation, political mobilization, and information gathering and dissemination.” For any site to survive it must provide users with interactivity options. In the realm of travel sites, users enjoy trading tips, stories and pictures, and asking for and giving advice. All three of our travel sites realise the importance of promoting interactivity on their sites.
NGA lets users upload their photographs and vote on their favourites. Users are encouraged to comment on editors’ and photographers’ blogs. Also, in the section called “The Green Guide: just ask” users are encouraged to type questions which will then be displayed with an answer. Unfortunately, however, this site hasn’t yet created a real sense of community. I would suggest it create a user forum.
LP does just that, creating The Thorn Tree, a travel forum boasting 300,000 members who together post 5,000 messages a day. There are over 200 groups within LP such as “The Quest for the Perfect Beach” and “Travel Writers Group” which encourage interaction within the site. Lastly, there is Lonely Planet’s flickr group for people to upload their travel photos and see the best displayed on the site’s homepage.
Frommer’s, too, motivate users to get involved. It has an active forum divided into thematic categories. It also encourages people to upload their photographs, for them to be displayed on the homepage, inviting further user involvement.
Google‘s “Webmaster Guidelines” offers invaluable advice for optimising a website’s SEO. It stresses the importance of keywords, saying, “Think about the words users would type to find your pages, and make sure that your site actually includes those words within it.”
Looking at NGA’s sitemap indicates which keywords are most important to the website. Keywords include: animals, education, history, kids, magazines & books, photography, shopping, etc. The titles of the articles under each of these categories are fitting. So under the photography category are articles with titles such as “Action and Adventure Photography Tips” and “Photographer: Becky Hale“. At the end of the former article are links to further reading, repeating the keyword photo* increases the site’s SEO.
LP is careful to always include the name of the place in the article’s title. Example articles about Barcelona have titles like “Top 10 architectural gems of Barcelona” and Feisty fiestas: it’s always party time in Barcelona!“.
Frommer’s does the same by focussing on specific destinations. Its articles on Barcelona repeat the city’s name as well: “What’s New: An Online Update for Frommer’s Barcelona” and “Barcelona: In One Day“.
Linking and Homepage
Jeff Jarvis’s “New rule: Cover what you do best. Link to the rest” talks about the importance of linking internally when you think you can provide expert information, but externally when you can’t – to better serve the needs of the user. These three websites need to heed Jarvis’s advice; the sites rarely link externally, probably out of the fear of losing site traffic. They instead do their best to maximise traffic within their site through internal linking and promotion through the homepage.
NGA’s articles are consistently formatted to include two internal linking tools. At the top right there is a box of links called “Related Topics” and at the bottom of the article “Related Features“. The homepage has two main menus at the top and left-hand side for in-site navigation. The remaining space is filled with small boxes highlighting the site’s content: news, videos, NG magazine, NG channel, etc. Though rarely, NGA will link externally – when referring to an organisation, for example.
LP also predominantly links internally. Articles all have a box to the right called Related Tips & Articles with links. The homepage regularly rotates articles that it chooses to feature for the day. The photographs and titles may be tweaked to give them a new feel. Occasionally LP will link externally to tourism websites or businesses as a means of providing authoritative information.
On the other hand, Frommer’s links very little at all. At the end of its articles it occasionally offers links to maps and products. However, aside each article is a menufor that particular destination providing easy access to further exploration. Frommer’s homepage offers an interesting rotating display of its content, as well as a list of articles organised by date, popularity or having the most comments.
I think NGA is very successful in achieving its mission to instruct and inspire. The site offers informative articles, inspirational photographs and lots of opportunities to get involved in groups, conservation and the green movement. However, it needs to re-think options for adapting its print magazine articles to a web-friendly format. Also, adding accompanying video alongside articles would be a nice web 2.0 touch.
LP is a true master of encouraging interactivity, adapting print content and inspiring travellers – just like it hopes to do. Lonely Planet is successful in providing numerous avenues for travellers to share pictures and tales, plan trips and read informative and entertaining stories from the Lonely Planet authors and fellow web users. However, it shouldn’t be so worried about linking externally – as avoiding it can be off-putting to users. Like NGA, LP needs more videos linked to its articles.
I think it does a great job of encouraging interactive use and creating a sense of “membership” into the Frommer’s community. However, the fact that Frommer’s receives the least traffic of the three sites is not surprising. It hasn’t grasped the important theories of web 2.0 which have the potential to maximise the site’s content and improve business.